BACKGROUND AND AIM: Accurate assessment of structural and functional characteristics of the liver could improve the diagnosis and the clinical management of patients with chronic liver diseases. However, the structure-function relationship in the progression of chronic liver disease remains elusive. The aim of this study is the combined measurement of liver function by the (13) C-methacetin Liver MAximum capacity (LiMAx) test and tissue-structure related stiffness by 2D time-harmonic elastography for the assessment of liver disease progression. METHODS: LiMAx test and time-harmonic elastography were applied, and the serological scores fibrosis 4 index and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index were calculated in patients with chronic liver diseases (n = 75) and healthy control subjects (n = 22). In 47 patients who underwent surgery, fibrosis was graded by histological examination of the resected liver tissue. RESULTS: LiMAx values correlated negatively with liver stiffness (r = -0.747), aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (r = -0.604), and fibrosis 4 (r = -0.573). Median (interquartile range) LiMAx values decreased with fibrosis progression from 395 mug/kg/h (371-460 mug/kg/h) in participants with no fibrosis to 173 mug/kg/h (126-309 mug/kg/h) in patients with severe fibrosis. Median liver stiffness increased progressively with the stage of fibrosis from no fibrosis (1.56 m/s [1.52-1.63 m/s]) to moderate fibrosis (1.60 m/s [1.54-1.67 m/s]) to severe fibrosis (1.85 m/s [1.76-1.92 m/s]). CONCLUSION: Our findings show that structural changes in the liver due to progressing liver diseases and reflected by increased tissue stiffness correlate with a functional decline of the organ as reflected by a decreased metabolic capacity of the liver.